State program placed Louisiana’s riskiest policies with untested insurers; many then failed
Over the last decade and a half, more than 129,000 policyholders have been offloaded from
Few homeowners knew how vulnerable some of the new private insurers really were until companies faced their first major challenges in 2020 and 2021 — a period that included four powerful hurricanes.
The flaws of the program are now becoming clear.
Every year since 2008, Louisiana Citizens policies have been offered to private insurers. No company that has applied has ever been turned down. Some insurers were barely up and running when they opted to underwrite homes for vulnerable Louisianans.
Six of the 18 companies participating have since been declared insolvent – including the four that took on the lion's share of the policies. Two insurers were consumed during mergers after struggling financially. At least two others have since left the state.
Half of the 18 companies had low financial stability ratings when they agreed to underwrite hundreds and — in some cases thousands — of policies, a Times-Picayune review found. These firms were one rating downgrade away from being ineligible to sell insurance to people with federally backed mortgages.
Not every company that participated failed financially. Insurers with better ratings usually took on fewer policies from the risk pool. Most of them survived the tough storm seasons — even if their balance sheets took a beating.
Consumers rarely questioned the switch from Louisiana Citizens to some unknown insurer, because it often came with a deep discount. Once the insurer for some 170,000 policyholders, Louisiana Citizens' headcount fell to about 36,000 by 2021, largely because of the depopulation program.
The grim results suggest the government's strategy is unsound. But regulators and lawmakers say they want to do it again. Some analysts predict the migration away from Citizens will be handled more cautiously this time.
"Almost everybody wanted out back then," said
The growing number of bankrupt insurers is forcing homeowners back into the arms of Lousiana Citizens where, by law, coverage offered must be at least 10% higher than private options. The organization now has more than 100,000 policyholders, nearly three times as many as before Hurricane Laura.
Some political leaders have blessed Donelon's pitch, citing Citizens' near-demise when Hurricane Katrina struck and the agency was holding some 170,000 policies. The fallout led the organization to borrow nearly
"It's a good tool," state Rep.
Close observers of the insurance industry, in interviews, expressed skepticism after reviewing data on the program's past performance. At a minimum, one said the state should commit to closely watching the private insurers indefinitely as long as they're underwriting policies in coastal
"These are effectively creations of government policy, and therefore the government has a responsibility to monitor them closely," said
Low stability ratings
Louisianans have for years faced challenges in finding property insurance in parishes below
In the years since, Donelon's LDI has lured small, upstart firms to replace them, in some cases offering multi-million dollar incentives to companies that agreed to underwrite properties along the coast.
Four of the 18 companies that participated in the depopulation program took state grants totaling
Underpinning the effort was Donelon's belief that even small insurers can do a better job managing catastrophic risk than a government-created entity like Citizens. He believed creating competition was key.
"Our companies all would have been fine through Hurricanes Laura, Delta and Zeta. The ones that failed didn't adequately reinsure themselves for Hurricane Ida," Donelon said. "That's on them, frankly, but we're not going to let that happen again. We're going to try not to let it happen again."
To better understand the depopulation program, The Times-Picayune sought a list of the companies that applied and how many Citizens policies each received. The newspaper also examined the stability rating given to each company at the time by AM Best and Demotech — two of the industry's most well-known rating agencies.
The industry relies on the ratings because the
Of 18 insurers that relied on depopulation, half had an "A" rating or better from Demotech when they first participated. Only seven firms had a "B" or higher from AM Best. Two of the insurers were unrated by the two agencies.
Creating a risky, 'niche market'
Ultimately, it was Louisiana Citizens' 16-member board of directors that approved which companies could assume the organization's policyholders.
"I know that wasn't the intended consequence of what occurred. They were well-capitalized," said Cromer, a Republican who once chaired the state
Few changes have been made to the program since it began. In 2018, the Legislature gave Citizens more discretion to decide when its policies could be offered to private insurers. By then, private firms were taking out only a few dozen policies a year. The overall number of policyholders had dwindled below 50,000.
"The goal was to move people into the private market as much as possible," Cromer said, "to give them an opportunity to compare rates, as opposed to a rate that's set by the state."
Agents played a role, too. Prospective insurers would review all the policies on Citizens' books, picking those they wanted to assume. Then the agent who helped create the original policy chose whether to approve the new insurer.
Then an "opt-out" letter was mailed to every policyholder, notifying them of the change and how they could stop it. If they took no action, their coverage rolled over to the new insurer.
Most people saw the new, lower-cost insurance coverage as a reprieve from Citizens' legislatively mandated high prices, said Shales, the independent insurance agent.
"There's a lot of people — the only way they got into houses over those 15 years is because they were buying these less-expensive policies," Shales said. "If we would have had Allstate or
Communicating the tradeoffs to homeowners – for instance, that the new companies had limited resources – was a major shortcoming of the program, said state Rep.
"Many homeowners were unaware that their policies had changed hands," Bourriaque said. "In some cases, many homeowners saw a reduction in premiums from Citizens to the new insurer and assumed that would be a positive outcome."
Formed in 2016, the insurer struggled to raise the
The firm's managers skirted the capital requirement for nearly two years until 2018, when the LDI seized control of the insurer. Regulators alleged that the firm's CEO,
Regulators also told a judge that Excalibur National's managers and board of directors were incompetent, adding that allowing them to continue operating would be "hazardous to their policyholders, creditors and the public."
Excalibur National was later sold to
Both insurers went under earlier this year, sending more than 5,500 outstanding claims to an industry bailout program run by the
In theory, offering consumers a private market solution over the state is not a bad idea, Grace said. But these small firms are nothing like Allstate,
"The well-capitalized private market insurers could (do it) because they're in business for the long run. These other companies are not," Grace said.
"I don't want to call them fly-by-night (insurers) because that sounds like they're set up to commit fraud. They're set up opportunistically to be alive when the sun is shining, and to walk away when the sun is not."
Private market dreams
State political leaders are still convinced that
Of the nine insurance companies writing policies that have collapsed in the last two years, six had a hand in the state's depopulation program.
When insurers collapse, their outstanding claims are sent to LIGA, which is supported by fees from viable insurance companies in the state. The guarantee fund will borrow
But some lawmakers still believe depopulation is
Homeowners steered to Citizens after their insurer collapsed are already feeling the pinch of its steep prices. Still, it could get worse: The organization is awaiting a decision from the LDI for a proposed 63% rate increase.
Donelon has said he wants to use it to lure companies to the state again.
The incentive plan has not yet been funded. At a
It's unclear what other aspects of the program might be tweaked.
The idea is that insurers will be motivated to buy more reinsurance if they have more of their own money on the line.
The bigger risk, though, is geography.
Many of the failed insurers were crippled by the scores of claims created after hurricanes rocked areas near the coast. Talbot said he hopes the LDI will find a way to address insurers that carry too many of those risky policies through regulation, but the details are still hazy.
"We're only going to offer the incentive program to (insurers) that want to write policies below
State program placed Louisiana’s riskiest policies with untested insurers; many then failed
Flight Delay Insurance Market to Witness Huge Growth by 2028 : AIG, Allianz, PICC: Flight Delay Insurance Market 2022-2028
Health/Employee Benefits News
Life Insurance News