The season ends Wednesday, and not a moment too soon. Summer featured floods that killed hundreds of people and caused more than
From June to August, there were at least 10 different weather disasters that each caused more than
"It is representing I think a notch up for the impacts we have had to deal with,"
While flooding made the news, the "sneaky" thing about the summer was heat that did not even ease at night, said
"This is one of the clearest signals we expect for climate change," said
While records were broken, the summer has "been more notable for the consistency of the heat than individual high-impact heatwaves," said
Temperatures of 129 degrees (54 degrees Celsius) were recorded in Mitribah,
The extra heat — both in the air and oceans — puts significantly extra moisture in the air, which then comes down as more extreme downpours, said
Climate scientists say what's happened pretty much fits with what they've been saying would occur as the world warms. For most of the extreme events, they haven't done the precise and detailed studies that can show that man-made climate change is to blame for certain extreme weather events. But they did do that for the
NASA chief climate scientist
Perhaps the most noticeable case of this being predicted was in a 1988 study by
In that study, using what scientists now call a crude computer model, Hansen forecast what would likely happen to Earth's climate. With one of his scenarios, Hansen not only got the global temperature rise about right, he forecast big changes in the number of days when the overnight temperatures would not go below 75 and the daytime highs would exceed 95 in four cities by the 2010s.
He was right — or underestimated how hot it would be — in six of eight categories.
"The fact it's come out with more or less around what was predicted is not surprising," Hansen said. "The summer is when things show up easiest because the natural variability is the least in the summer. You notice the change more readily in the warm season."